Common Carps Fish Farming Complete Information From Breeding To Harvesting
- Broodstock selection and segregation
- Breeding of common carp
- Fry Production
- Fingerling Production
- Grow production
The common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) belongs to the Cyprinidae family. It is a kind of freshwater and also present in brackish water. It is distributed all over the world. The length at first maturity measures 34.9 cm and varies from 25 to 36 cm. Adults live in warm, deep, slow-flowing and calm waters.
The common carp is resistant in nature and can tolerate a wide variety of conditions. Generally, it favors large bodies of water with slow or slow flow water with soft bottom sediments. Both adults and juveniles feed on the different benthic organisms and plant material. Adults often undertake considerable migration from spawning to suitable backwaters and flooded grasslands. The larvae survive in warm waters, especially in the shallow submerged vegetation area.
The IUCN Red List status has included common carp in the “vulnerable” category.
Broodstock selection and segregation
Proper selection of breeders is very important for better breeding and growth results. Fish characteristics, such as the fastest and largest growth recorded with the desired body shape, are considered for the selection of breeding fish. It is not advisable to choose the breeding of fish of the same offspring or offspring, as it results in inbreeding depression. In addition, it leads to low growth performance and preponderance of deformed fry.
Two to three-year-old fish (weighing about 2 to 3 kg) are suggested for ideal breeding. They can be used for several years since larger fish generate more and more eggs than smaller fish. About 1 to 1.5 lakhs of eggs are produced per kg of fish body weight.
Three or four months before the breeding season, breeding fish are separated and stored in segregated ponds to avoid unwanted spawning. Secondary sex characters distinguish male and female fish. Women have a swollen abdomen due to the developing ovaries and in men, the slurry is exuded when the abdomen is gently pressed into the genital pore. Segregated farmed fish should not be kept in overcrowded conditions. They are fed an artificial diet rich in protein for rapid gonadal development. Foods high in carbohydrates should be avoided to avoid a fat deposition. It is required to avoid stress through the network.
Breeding of common Carps
Propagation of artificial stimulation.
The common carp naturally reproduces in confined waters. Several propagation methods have been developed in different areas. The spawning of the ponds is easier when the farmer has no hatchery. It is possible to breed common carp in cement tank or hapa and then fertilized eggs or larvae can be transferred to the nursery tank.
Selected breeding fish are introduced into the hapa without any dose administered in the proportion of two males and one female. Spawning takes place within 24 to 36 hours. Better fertility and a good spawning response is noticed when the flow is maintained with new water. Fiber is commonly used to collect fertilized eggs, due to the adhesive nature of the egg. The collected eggs are changed to another hapa. After three days, the newborn fry are transferred to the nursery breeding tank.
Artificial propagation by hormone by extraction method.
When the condition is not favorable for successful natural spawning or there is a requirement for the production of a greater amount of fry, the hypophyzation technique should be used to induce fish. Induced spawning and larval rearing provide greater control in the hatchery compared to natural propagation, in addition to ensuring a better survival rate when the fry are raised in indoor conditions.
Breeding fish are selected from segregated ponds and used directly for breeding. The response to propagation is less in female fish and, therefore, it is advisable to inject twice the required number. The number of men to be injected will be approximately two-thirds of the number of women injected. The dose and sequence of the injection are not standardized and the practices vary considerably. The administered dose (ovatide) is 0.2 to 0.3 ml/kg of fish for the male and for the female it is 0.4 – 0.5ml / kg of body weight of the fish. The dose is injected intramuscularly between the base of the dorsal fin and above the lateral line. Male and female managed fish are kept separately. Before extraction, the fish are anesthetized with ethyl-M-aminobenzoate at 100 ppm (bath for 3 to 5 minutes) to avoid handling difficulties. The female fish is stripped by gently squeezing the abdomen towards the anal. Easily flowing eggs are collected in a container. Similarly, the male is stripped of milk that is also collected in the same container. The female releases about 150,000 eggs per kg of body weight and the size of the egg range between 0.9 – 1.9 mm in diameter.
For a liter of eggs, the two or three-liter grout is essential for a better fertilization rate. The eggs and the milk are properly mixed with feathers, as they agglomerate due to the adhesive nature. The sticky nature of eggs can be addressed using sodium chloride and carbamide (4 g of sodium and 3 g of carbamide dissolved in a liter of water). Initially add this solution while mixing the eggs and the grout for approximately 5 to 10 minutes. As the eggs begin to swell, a small amount of solution is added at regular intervals. Within 1 to 1.30 hours, the swelling of the eggs stops completely and the first excision occurs. However, to completely remove the adhesive layer, the eggs are washed with the tannic acid solution (0.05 – 0.07 percent) for 20 seconds and for approximately 5 times. Each time 0.01 percent water is added to the stock solution. Finally, the eggs are washed in freshwater for approximately 5 minutes and are now ready for incubation.
The eggs are incubated in a simple double hapa. The incubation hapa consists of 2 x 2 x 1 m with a fine mesh size of 0.5 mm with an inner hapa also made of the same material with a mesh size of 2.0 – 2.5 mm. The eggs spread inside the hapa. The hatched larvae fall through the largest meshes of the inner hapa and are retained by the outer hapa. After hatching, the inner hapa with dead eggs, eggshells, and other debris is removed to prevent deterioration of water quality. Eggs are stored inside the hapa after hatching and transferred to the nursery tank.
Artificial propagation by the hormone.
The success rate of hypophysation of common carp is 60 to 70 percent. The result will be poor if breeding fish have not been fed enough protein-rich food. The hypophysation is done in a small tank or hapa where the eggs are dispersed. Submerged aquatic plants, kakaban or fiber are used as substrates for laying eggs. After three days, the newborn larvae are collected from the hapa and stored in the nursery pond.
The nursery tanks are generally shallow and have a depth of 0.5 m. The three-day-old newborn larvae are stored at a density of one million fry in a 20 m2 cement cistern. The suggested water flow is 1 liter per minute per square meter. Live food organisms are collected from nature and fed for better results in terms of survival and growth. Farmers can feed the larvae with initial food and brine shrimp, if possible. Larvae reach 1-2 cm within 15-20 days of the cultivation period.
For spawning, the breeding ponds are usually small (0.02 – 0.05 ha) and shallow with a depth of 1 m. Seasonal ponds are preferred than perennial ponds considering the absence of aquatic weeds and weed fish. A three-day fry is 5 – 6 mm in size. It is raised for 2 to 3 weeks when it reaches a size of approximately 25-30 mm. The population density varies widely and ranges between 10 and 40 lakhs per hectare. When the population density is higher, additional supplementary feeding is essential for better survival and better growth. If raised in a well-prepared pond, the attainable survival rate is approximately 60 to 70 percent.
The preparation of the pond is exactly similar to the major Indian carp And this will be provided in next Article link below.
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