Integrated Fish Farming – Rationale And Scope
Today’s economy is primarily based on agriculture and software development in the field of information technology. To make rapid progress in rural areas, we need to focus on our strategy. Conserving natural resources, improving efficient resource use, improving productivity and profitability, and improving quality and competitiveness by reducing production costs.
Water is emerging as an international challenge, and the most efficient management, not only recycling but also recycling, is paramount. Recycling of crop residues and agriculture by-products containing nitrogen-fixed legumes, bio-fertilizers, vermiculum, agriculture and forestry, nutrient-solubilizing microorganisms, and efficient nutrients ingesting plant varieties is the strategy of research. In order to minimize production costs, research is underway on improving the efficiency of cultivation, agricultural machinery in cultivation, and agricultural and resource conservation technologies.
Integrated farming is one of the best examples of mixed farming. In East and Southeast Asian countries, mainly various forms of agricultural practices are one of the important ecologically balanced sustainable technologies. This technique involves a multicultural combination of fish integrated with crop or livestock production. An important component of integrated fish farming in farm waste recycling is very beneficial to farmers by improving the production economy and reducing the environmental adverse effects of agriculture.
Integrated fish farming refers to the simultaneous culture of fish or shellfish along with other cultural systems. It can also be defined as a sequential connection between two or more cultural practices. In general, integrated farming means the production or culture of two or more agricultural practices, but when fish become a major component, this is called integrated fish farming. Fish farming can be integrated with multiple systems for efficient resource utilization.
The integration of aquaculture with livestock or crops provides quality protein food, resource utilization, farm waste recycling, job creation, and economic development. Integrated fish farming is a well-developed cultural practice in China, followed by Hungary, Germany, and Malaysia. Our country India is organic-based and comes from agriculture and livestock. Integrated aquaculture is accepted as a sustainable form. For integration, you can use recycled wastewater from food processing plants, as well as from the agricultural industry.
Integrated aquaculture is used as a sustainable food production model according to certain principles.
Waste from one biological system is used as a nutrient for the second biological system.
The integration of fish and plants increases diversity and results in multiculturalism that produces multiple products.
Water is reused through biological filtration and recirculation.
Local food production provides access to healthy food and improves the local economy.
Integrated form ecosystem
The process of capturing solar energy,
Production of organic substances by primary producers (auto nutrients)
Utilization by phagocytes
degradation of autotrophs and phagotrophic by saprotrophs,
Release of nutrients for autotrophs.
Advantages of an integrated fish farm
Efficient use of waste from various cultural practices for fish production.
Reduce the extra cost of supplementation and fertilization.
It is an artificial, balanced ecosystem without waste.
It provides more means of employment.
Reduce input, increase output and economic efficiency.
Integrated fish farming provides fish with meat (chicken, duck, beef, pork, etc.), milk, vegetables, fruits, eggs, grains, fodder, mushrooms, etc.
This practice has the potential to increase the production and socio-economic status of the weakest parts of our society.
Types of integrated fish farms
Basically, there are two types of integrated aquaculture.
a) Agriculture and Fisheries
b) livestock farming
Fish livestock farming is realized as an innovation for the recycling of organic waste and the production of high-quality protein at a low cost.
(a) Agriculture and Fisheries
1) Rice-Cucumber Farming In India, this agriculture is practiced in Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, and Assam, where there is enough water in the rice fields. Rice fields hold water for 3-8 months a year. Interest in this practice has diminished because of the recent use of pesticides to protect high-yielding rice fields.
This practice can be done in the following types of paddy field.
i) The surrounding type of paddy field grows in the middle.
ii) Central pond type-the area where the paddy field grows around.
iii) Side Trench System-Trenches are provided on one or both sides of the intermediate slope area.
The various rice used in this culture is Panidhan, Jalmagna, CR26077, Tulsi, etc. The major Indian carp are Channa spp, Oreochromis mossambicus, Clarias batrachus, Anabas testudineus, silver carp, grass carp, and common carp. The total yield of these practices is about 90 integers in 2 paddy fields, and the fish production is about 1000 kg per hectare.
The horticulture-breeding system includes a culture of fruits, vegetables, and flowers on the banks of a pond. Fruits and vegetables contain a variety of nutrients, and the Indian Council of Medical Research recommends 85 grams of fruits and 300 grams of vegetables daily. For the production of horticultural crops, areas adjacent to the inner and outer embankments of the pond are used. The choice of plants is the main criterion for the success of this system. Plants should be dwarf, seasonal, evergreen, conservative and less shaded. The fruit crops you can use are mango, banana, papaya, coconut, lime, etc. Vegetables such as brinjal, tomato, cucumber, gourd, pepper, carrot, tan, turnip, spinach, peas, cabbage, cauliflower, ladies’ finger cans grow seasonally throughout the year. The embankment flower farm is also useful. We can use plants such as Rose, Jasmine, Gladiolus, Marigold, and Chrysanthemum, which provide additional income for farmers and beauty on the farm. This system provides 20-25% more profits than aquaculture.
Perch aquaculture includes mushroom fish systems, fish farming systems, and feed crop integration. Pond bungees can also be used to grow legumes and seed crops. Aquatic cash cuttings such as Makhana (Euryale Ferox) and Singhara (Trapa spp) integration can also be performed with air-breathing or carnivorous fish.
(b) Livestock farming:
Poultry fish farm
The system uses poultry excrement from fully poultry waste for fish culture. The production of fish obtained is about 5000 kg/ha/yr. 1250kg chicken and 70,000 eggs approximately 500 to 600 No. 1 ha Raising birds in a pond. Birds of the Rhode Island or Leghorn breed are preferred over others. You need 0.3-0.4 square meters of space / trillion. Hoppers are used to feed and minimize feed waste. Poultry algae (stratum) are supplied with starter, grower, and broiler feeds depending on age. In India, it is practiced in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Kerala, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, and Tamilnadu.
2) Duck meat fish culture
Ducks are commonly called biological aerators. They are raised in low-cost homes on the banks of the pond. This farming is conducted in Tamil Nadu, Assam, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura, Orissa, Karnataka, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh. The ‘Indian Runner’ and ‘Khaki Campbell’ varieties are more suitable for this culture. About 300 ducklings (some seeds breed 450-500 each) are bred to grow 1 hectare. nail. Ducks not only act as a live abandoner by watering them with webbing but also control aquatic weeds (Lemna, Azola, etc.), aquatic insects, mollusks, tadpoles and more. The total output from this type of culture is about 3500-5000 kg fish, 18000-18500 eggs and 600 kg duck meat. Duck dung is used as fertilizer for primary production.
3) Pork – fish culture
This system has advantages over other systems. Waste from 30-35 pigs can produce 1 ton of ammonium sulfate, and 40-45 pigs are suitable for fertilizing 1ha water bodies under multicultural. Each pig needs about 3-4 square meters of floor space. This integrated system is very common in China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Hungary, and some European countries. White Yorkshire, Hampshire, and Landrace are popular varieties for integration with fish. Pigs need clean housing that provides adequate protection from bad weather. The pig eats a pig mash consisting of rice bran, rice polish, bran, broken corn, peanut oil cake, fish flour mineral mixture, salt, etc. You can also mix spoiled vegetables. The system is about 3000-4000 kg/ha/yr fish, 4500 kg/yr pork and 800 no. Of piglets every year.
4) Beef form
This is a common practice worldwide. Cow dung is the most abundant in terms of availability, and healthy cows can excrete 4000-5000 kg feces and 3500-4000 liters of urine annually. The board of cow fertilizer is lower than other livestock fertilizers. About 5-6 cows can provide manure suitable for 1ha ponds in addition to 9000kg of milk and about 3000-4000kg of fish each year. To simplify the handling of cow fertilizer, fish farms should be built near ponds.
5) Goat meat fish integration
It is considered a poor man’s cow, and chlorine excrement is considered a very good organic fertilizer. Chlorine droppings contain 60% organic carbon, N-2.7%, P-1.78%, K-2.88%, and urine is equally rich in N & P. At least 50-60 goats are essential for fertilizing a 1 ha pond. Chlorine should be protected from excessive heat in a dry, safe and comfortable home. Goat varieties are Jamanapari, Beetal, Barbari, milk for Bengal, Sirohi, and Deccani for meat. Chlorine is an optional feeder and consumes Berseem, Napier grass, Cowpea Soybean, Mulberry, etc. This integration can provide 3500-4000 kg fish/ha/year without additional supply and fertilizer.
6) Rabbit fish integration
Rabbit meat is preferred by most health-conscious consumers due to its low fat compared to other meats. Important breeding species are Soviet Chinchilla, Gray Giant, and White Giant. Rabbits are raised in cages, hutches and floor systems (the floor must be treated with cement). Rabbit feces contain -50% organic carbon, N-2%, P-1.33% and K-1.2%. Rabbit feces have high nitrogen content and low moisture, making them a good quality fertilizer for plankton production. It is estimated that the feces of 300 rabbits will be sufficient for fertilization of 1 ha pond.