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Top 10 Small Freshwater Fish For Small Aquariums

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Top 10 small freshwater fish for small aquariums
Top 10 small freshwater fish for small aquariums

Small Freshwater Fish

Fish For Small Aquariums. Yuji is a small fish tank, a hobby enjoyed by both beginners and experienced aquariums. After all, small aquariums are easy to install and convenient and have very little space requirements. However, one of the most common problems in these aquariums is determining what kind of fish will thrive in a space-constrained environment.  

So, whether you’re setting up your own small aquarium or not, if you want to add more nano inhabitants to your tank, you need to know what type of freshwater species best suits your needs.  

1. BetaBetta fish

Experience level: beginner to intermediate Maximum size: 3 inches Temperament: peaceful (under certain conditions) Water temperature: 75-86 ° F Water pH: 6.8-7.4 Aquarium robustness: Hardy Minimum tank size: 2 gallons Also known as siamese fighting fish, this beta fish is a tropical fish that only grows to 3 inches in length.

What is the easiest fish to keep? Fish For Small Aquariums

Beta up to 3 inches in size is one of the smallest freshwater fish and makes for convenient aquarium pets. It can be stored in a small bottom tank with at least 2 gallons of water.   The male beta features vivid coloring and long flowing fins, and the female beta is less colored and has relatively short pins. Their beautiful appearance gives them an amazing aesthetic appeal.   Because they have a solid arrangement, they endure poor water quality, change the water temperature, and have no difficulty in narrowing the space.

However, a regular exchange of water is required.   The bettas are essentially peaceful species, but because of their tendency to fight each other, do not put two males in the same aquarium. On the other hand, multiple female betas have no difficulty living together and can be stored in the same tank as one male beta.

2. Heavenly Pearl Danios Heavenly Pearl Danios

Experience level: beginner Maximum size: 1 inch Temperament: peaceful school fish Water temperature: 73-79 ° F Water pH: 6.5-7.5 Aquarium robustness: Hardy Minimum tank size: 10 gallons If you are looking for a small freshwater fish that can increase the aesthetic value of your aquarium, check out the Sky Pearl Danio.  

It is a freshwater fish with a beautiful appearance that comes with sky pearls and is available in various colors. They are popular aquarium fish due to their size, peaceful temperament, and coarse tendency.   The distinctive features between fish species and females are abundant. But the most interesting thing is in appearance because the male Danio is smaller and more colorful than the female.  

Adults are small and the maximum length is 1 inch. Because of its small size, it can be stored in a 10-gallon tank that carries the celestial pearl and must be planted to imitate its natural habitat. For best results with this fish, keep Danio in groups of 5 or 6 or more and see if there are more women than men. It is an omnivorous animal that carries the pearl of the sky. They eat everything from algae, plant and saltwater prawns to flakes, pellets, and live bugs.  

3. Neon TetraNeon tetra

Experience level: Intermediate Maximum size: 2.5 inches Temperament: peaceful Water temperature: 70-81 ° F Water pH: 6.0-7.0 Aquarium robustness: Hardy Minimum tank size: 10 gallons The neon tetra is a freshwater tropical fish and can reach up to 2.5 inches long. However, the average length of the neon tetra is 1.5 inches.  

For fish growing up to 1.5-2.5 inches, neon tetra can be stored in a 10-gallon tank. However, when school sizes are small, Tetra is prone to stress, so you need to secure at least 15-20 tetras and store them in a 20-gallon tank.   When designing aquatic homes, add a lot of low light hiding to the tank. These creatures can live more comfortably in a dark environment, and overall it is better to provide a place to hide and rest.  

Neon Tetra is a peaceful and enjoyable fish that works great in community tanks because the tank mate is small and has the same temperament. They are also very popular among beginner lovers because they are very low maintenance pets.   Neon Tetra is omnivorous, so you can enjoy almost any food.  

4. Guppies

Experience level: beginner Maximum size: 2.5 inches Temperament: peaceful Water temperature: 66-84 ° F Water pH: 7.0-8.0 Aquarium robustness: very rigid Minimum tank size: 10 gallons There are many reasons why goofy is one of the most popular fish species in the fishing world.

Best of all, they are very hardy fish that require minimal care from start to finish. Other reasons include a convenient size and an incredibly impressive appearance and come in unlimited color combinations.   Male guppies can grow up to 2 inches in length, but male guppies are relatively larger and tend to grow to 2.5 inches long.

This cute little creature can grow to 2 to 2.5 inches in length, so we recommend an aquarium with a capacity of at least 10 gallons.   No fish training, but guppies should be kept in groups of at least 6 people. However, when grouping goofy, keep the ratio of men and women to 1: 2 so that they do not fight in the tank.  

If you plan to give them tank mates outside your own species, look for small, medium-sized fish that are peaceful and not aggressive (Cory Dora, Bellflower, etc.).   Guppy is an omnivorous animal and willing to eat in-flight meals, freeze-dried foods, and flake-based aquarium foods.  

5. Sparkling Gourami

Flashing gourami Experience level: beginner Maximum size: 1.6 inches Temperament: relatively peaceful Water temperature: 71.5-80.5 ° F Water pH: 6.0-8.0 Aquarium robustness: Hardy Minimum tank size: 15 gallons Shiny Gourami is a small freshwater aquarium fish up to 1.6 inches long and can adapt to a variety of environments including harsh water conditions.

Ultra-compact shiny gourami is a great option for those looking for small freshwater fish.   Shiny Gourami has pattern pins that make up a significant part of the elongated torso. They also feature small pelvic fins, combined anal fins, dorsal fins, and striking blue eyes surrounded by thin red lines. It is very easy to distinguish the shiny gourami from other small fish in a rather unique shape.  

In addition to the incredibly convenient size, the shiny Gourami is a peaceful creature, which should be kept in groups of at least 5-6, and 1 male is recommended for every 3-4 women.   In addition, storage in tanks with other fish species is no problem. However, for everything to work out well, the tank mate must have a calm temperament and be roughly the same size. Examples of good Kurami tank mates are Tetra, Corridor, Las Boras, and Neon Rainbow.  

6. Bumblebee Gobi

Bumblebee fern Experience level: Intermediate Maximum size: 1.7 inches Temperament: peaceful Water temperature: 73-79 ° F Water pH: 6.5-7.5 Aquarium robustness: Hardy Minimum tank size: 10 gallons Bumblebee fern is a small, peaceful fish species characterized by a bright yellow body and dark tar stripes. It resembles one of nature’s most diligent and important animals, bees.  

Adult bee ferns can reach up to 1.7 inches in length and must be stored in tanks with a capacity of at least 10 gallons. Since ferns are group fish, they should be kept in groups of at least 6-7 of the same species.   The bumblebee fern is a very active swimmer, and the tank must have enough space to swim.

They also like to hide, so it’s a good idea to provide sand imprints, living plants, river rocks, and driftwood.  

Bumblebee fern is a hardy fish species but is often not recommended for beginner aquarists because of its demanding nature.  

7. Dwarf Buffer

Dwarf puffer Experience level: Intermediate Maximum size: 1 inch Temperament: Territory / Attack Water temperature: 72-79 ° F Water pH: 6.5-7.5 Aquarium robustness: not strong, very salt resistant Minimum tank size: 10 gallons The dwarf respirator is a relatively new fish in the aquarium hobby scene.

They are freshwater fish species that thrive in a more comfortable environment, so they should never be placed in a brackish or saltwater tank.   The adult dwarf respirator can grow up to 1 inch long, making it one of the smallest aquarium fish in the world. Very small in size means you don’t need a large tank, but you still need to provide a tank with a capacity of at least 10 gallons.  

When installing a tank with a group of dwarf respirators, the ideal tank setting is 10 gallons for the first respirator and 5 gallons for each additional respirator. The dwarf pufferfish is a territorial fish species that require a lot of personal space despite its small size. Having enough space in the tank will help lower your aggression.     Also, creating more hiding places can lower your stress level, so it’s a good idea to add a lot of plants and rocks to the tank.  

8. Ember TetraEmber Tetra

Experience level: beginner Maximum size: 1 inch Temperament: peaceful Water temperature: 68-82 ° F Water pH: 5.5-7.0 Aquarium robustness: relatively rigid Minimum tank size: 10 gallons The ember tetra is a nano freshwater fish that gets its name from a bright orange similar to the light of a dying fire. This fish species is easily discernable due to its flaming hot appearance.

Ember tetras are very small and can grow up to 1 inch in adults. However, the standard size of ember tetras is about 0.8 inches.   Ember Tetra is smaller than most fish species but is an active swimmer who likes to play in the middle of the tank, hiding in plants and rocks. So, if you want them to be happy, at least you should keep them in a 10-gallon tank with lots of lairs.

Ember tetras are relatively hard fish species that can adapt to different water hardness and pH levels. However, if the water quality and fluctuations are severe, it is affected. When it comes to diet, the barren tetra is an omnivorous fish species that eat flakes, pellets, and live food, among other things. Stay healthy by giving them a varied diet.  

9. Salt and pepper catfishSalt and pepper catfish

Experience level: beginner to intermediate Maximum size: 1.4 inches Temperament: peaceful Water temperature: 72-79 ° F Water pH: 6.2-7.2 Aquarium robustness: Hardy Minimum tank size: 8 gallon Salt and pepper catfish, one of the three Pygmy corydoras, are small freshwater species with black and gray patches and stripes on their pale tan body. This fish species is one of the most common aquarium fish in the world.

Adult salt and pepper catfish can reach up to 1.4 inches in length, and female species grow larger than males. They are school fish and need to be kept in the last 6 schools to thrive. The minimum tank size required for the recommended number of salt and pepper catfish (6) is 8 gallons.

Salt and pepper catfish are strong and can adapt to different water quality conditions, but are considered delicate species due to their extremely warm temperatures and their vulnerability to poor water quality.   Salt and pepper catfish are dietary omnivores consisting of frozen foods, micro pellets, small flakes, small crustaceans and wafer foods. They are also scavengers who love to wipe the bottom of the tank for leftovers.  

10. Least KilliFish Least KiliFish

Experience level: beginner Maximum size: 1.4 inches Temperament: peaceful Water temperature: 66-75 ° F Water pH: 7.0-8.0 Aquarium robustness: hardy species Minimum tank size: 5 gallons The least killing is one of the smallest freshwater fish species. It also means that it is the smallest survivor in the world, has internal fertilization and can produce youth.  

This live fish species can grow up to 1.4 inches and males (0.75 inches) are much smaller than females (1.4 inches). The minimum kill fish with a maximum length in the range of 0.75-1.4 inches is one of the best fish for a 5-gallon tank and can be kept in a fairly large group.   In addition, a 5-gallon tank setting should have a mild filtration system and massive plants.

  Minimal killing is a peaceful creature that can be omnivorous. For optimal health, a variety of diets should be provided, including vegetables and live and frozen food.  

Conclusion

One of the biggest advantages of owning a small freshwater aquarium is that it’s as enjoyable as having a large freshwater tank. Another advantage is that the options are rather limited, but you are free to choose the type of fish you want to live on. Remember that even a small freshwater aquarium needs regular care and maintenance. Even small inhabitants need to feed properly and have enough space.

10 Largest Fish Species Today

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Largest Fish Species
Largest Fish Species

10 Largest Fish Species Today

10. Reef Manta Ray

Manta Freddy is the second largest species in the world today and the 10th largest. Fish are commonly found in tropical and subtropical waters, but not in the East Pacific and Western Atlantic. The fish weighs 1.4 tons and reaches 5.5 m in length. It mainly consumes zooplankton and is a filter feeder. Due to its considerable size and rapid speed, it is rarely predated, but human activities such as over fishing have had a negative impact on this species’ population. Therefore, the Reef Manta Ray is a vulnerable species of the IUCN Red List.

9. Beluga Sturgeon

Huso huso, an endangered species, belongs to the sturgeon family. Fish habitats are limited to the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Adriatic Sea. Humans have used this species a lot for Beluga caviar, an expensive delicacy. The unregulated fishing and poaching activity of this species has severely reduced this fish population, creating an urgent need to protect the species from commercial exploitation. Fish are also late-maturing species with long life spans. Move upstream from the river to lay eggs. Other fish and almost waterfowl form the basis of prey. The largest known specimen of Beluga sturgeon is 23.6 feet long and weighs 1,571 kg.

8. Hoodwinker Sunfish

Mola tecta were discovered recently, so little is known about its behavior. However, it is one of the largest fish species known to us. This fish is found in the salt waters of the southern hemisphere and feeds on sap there.

7. Sharptail Mola

Masturus lanceolatus is a mollar species that inhabit the world’s tropical and temperate seawater. Since this species is inherently ambiguous, it is rarely observed and therefore little understood. The fish is about 11 feet long and weighs 2 tons. Sharptail Mola eats a variety of species, including annealed reeds, sponges, and fish. The conservation status of the species has not been evaluated.

6. Sea Sunfish

Mola mola is the largest living bonefish in the world. Adults of this species weigh about 2.3 tons and can grow up to 10.8 feet in length. Due to its unique shape, the fish can reach the same height as its length. These fish inhabit the tropical and temperate oceans of the world. They eat large quantities of sea jelly. They have few carnivores but are threatened by human activities such as fishing. Therefore, IUCN marked this species “vulnerable.”

5. Giant Marine Manta Ray

Manta birostris is a ray species classified as the fifth largest fish species in the world. Therefore, it is the largest ray species and can be 23 feet tall and weighs about 3 tons. These rays live in tropical and subtropical waters. Manta ships mainly eat plankton and swim in groups alone or with other members of the same species or different marine species. Manta Ray has few predators in the water, but humans are responsible for the rapid decline in population due to irresponsible fishing practices.

4. Tiger Shark

The Galeocerdo cuvier or “Sea Tiger” is the fourth largest fish species today, more than 16 feet long and weighs about 3 tonnes. Young sharks living around the islands of the central Pacific Ocean have a black tiger-like body that disappears with age, and these stripes give the species a name. Sadly, tiger sharks are also threatened by human activities that make them almost threatened species on the IUCN Red List, and tiger sharks are great white sharks.

3. Great White Shark

Carcharodon carcharias is found in coastal waters of all oceans with a water temperature of 12 to 24 ° C. Some specimens of the species have been found to be 20 feet long and weigh about 3.3 tons. However, in general, an individual is about 13 feet long. Great white sharks can live for over 70 years. Most shark-related attacks on humans are associated with this shark species. This is because human encounters live in more frequent coastal areas. However, humans are not the preferred prey of this species, but still, unprovoked attacks by great whites are very common. These fish eat a variety of prey species, including seaweed. Great white sharks are the predators of the ecosystem, but sometimes it is known that killer whales kill this shark. Great white sharks are also vulnerable species that are subject to the same threats as the species mentioned above.

2. Sharks

Cetorhinus maximus can reach about 20 to 26 feet in length and weighs about 19 tons, making it the second-largest existing fish species in the world. This migratory shark species is found in temperate oceans around the world. Like whale sharks, they only eat plankton. The filter feeder, the shark, feeds near the surface of the water as if it were sunning. The basking shark was classified as a vulnerable species by IUCN. Commercial exploitation for years of food, shark liver oil, shark fins, and threats of fishing, loss of rot, etc., has reduced the population of this species.

1. Whale Shark

Rhincodon typus, which can grow up to 41.5 feet and weigh 21.5 tons, is the largest fish species today. It is also the largest existing non-mammalian vertebrate species on the planet. Whale sharks are found in the open waters of the warm tropical waters. This fish can live for up to 70 years. Despite its huge size, fish rarely pose a threat to humans. They mainly eat plankton. This species is marked as an endangered species by IUCN. Bycatch loss, ship strikes, and low growth rates are just some of the threats to the species’ future survival.

Top 10 Most Dangerous Fish In the World

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dangerous fish
dangerous fish

Most Dangerous Fish In the World

Anyone like me will be wondering what kind of fish are in our sea. Here at Oyster Diving, you have had diving vacations all over the world and have seen thousands of different fish species in different colors, shapes, and sizes. And they still fascinate us.   But what’s as cool as being able to experience diving and swimming with marine life is as important as recognizing the potential dangers of the ocean.   Many people are afraid of the sea. We did not write this article to surprise you, we wrote this article to educate you briefly on what to avoid. Today we have compiled a list of the 10 most dangerous fish in the world. Read on if you dare – some of these can give you a nightmare!  

1. The Buffer Fish  

Respirators, also called blowfish or blowfish, swell when disturbed or threatened. Blowfish has a highly toxic substance called tetrodotoxin located in the liver, ovaries, intestines, and skin. Tetrodotoxin poison affects the victim’s brain and can cause weakness, paralysis, and death.   This fish is physically very strong and has a strong survival instinct due to its pointy skin. They are one of the most poisonous fish found in our oceans.   Where to dive with pufferfish: Pufferfish is found in tropical waters and Indonesia is the best place to dive with pufferfish.  

2. Red Lion  

Red Lion Fish is famous for its viper fins, etc., but it is rarely fatal, but it can hurt. The fish has large pectoral fins and elongated dorsal fin spines, and each species has a thick zebra-shaped stripe.   When disturbed, the fish will stretch out the fins and, if more severe, attack with the backbone.   The red lionfish is one of the most well-known species and inhabits the South Pacific reef ecosystem. Relying on the stomach and ultra-fast reflexes, it mainly feeds on fish and shrimp. When a human is trapped in a lionfish, it is not fatal, but it is extremely painful and can cause nausea and shortness of breath.   Where to dive with lionfish: To dive with lionfish, visit the Caribbean Sea and enjoy warm water temperatures and amazing views.  

3. Great White Shark  

Great white sharks are one of the most famous and powerful predators in the world, so they rarely need to be introduced. When an attack occurs, Great White Sharks tend to injure and retreat the victim. If the bite is very large, there is serious tissue or organ damage, which can lead to the death of the victim.   Where to dive with Great White Sharks: There are many places to dive with Great White Sharks. Neptune Island, Australia, South Africa, Gan Svai, Isla Guadeloupe, Mexico, Stewart Island, New Zealand, Tiger Beach, Bahamas.  

4. Moray Eel  

One of the most dangerous fish in the sea, Moray Eel, when disturbed, is malicious and attacks humans. The eel’s chin is equipped with strong, sharp teeth, which can catch prey and cause serious injury. There are more than 80 species of eel. They tend to live in shallow, tropical and subtropical areas and can hide between rocks and reefs.   Where to dive with Moray Eels: The best places to dive with Moray Eels are Egypt, Belize, and Mexico.  

5. Tiger Fish  

Tiger fish are known for their sharp teeth and can cause serious injuries to unsuspecting swimmers. Depending on the species, vertical stripes and dagger-shaped teeth pop out when the mouth is closed. It is best to avoid it!   Where to dive with tigerfish: tigerfish can be found in Africa, Zambia’s river system and Congo.  

6. Electric eel  

The electric eel is accompanied by South American fish that cause a powerful electric shock that stuns prey. Electric eels can grow to 2.75 meters and weigh 22 kg. In general, we prefer fresh, slow-moving freshwater, and you can breathe air through the surface every few minutes. The charge released by the electric eel is about 330-650 volts, powerful enough to shock humans!   Where to dive with electric eel: Electric eel is a South American freshwater fish and can be found in the Amazon Basin.  

7. The Box Jellyfish  

Box Jellyfish is one of the most dangerous fish in the sea and is considered the most notorious marine animal. Poison can cause death in minutes and traces of sting to remain for life. Box Jellyfish uses poison to attack heart activity. When attacked, the victim experiences a very low heart rate, very painful sting and death.   Where to dive with Box Jellyfish: You can dive into jellyfish in Japan, Australia and the Gulf of Mexico!  

8.The Candiru  

These scaleless fish are usually found in the Amazon River. Kandy Lu fish eat blood. Yes, you read it. It eats blood. These small fish can be found in the gill holes of other fish. But believe it or not, it is not a scary part. Kandy Lu is also known to attack humans. It enters the body through the urethra and causes shortness of the spine and gills, causing inflammation, pain, bleeding, and death in unfortunate victims.   Where to dive with Candiru: It is better not to go into the water with Candiru. However, Candiru can be found in the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru.  

9.The Stonefish  

It is commonly found in the tropical waters of the Indian Pacific Ocean and lives in shallow waters. Stonefish is a slow, bottom-dwelling fish that is very difficult to see, as it almost perfectly blends with the surroundings. Stepping on it injects a large amount of poison into the victim. Wounds caused by stepping on a stone fish can be very painful and fatal.   Where to dive with snails: You can dive with snails in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.  

10. Piranhas  

Piranha is one of the most famous fish in the world. With the death of a bad guy, piranha in the movie undermines fame. Piranha, famous for their sharp teeth, can exert a bite force on average 20-30 times their own weight. As a result, even the largest animals can be crushed in minutes.   Where to dive into piranha: The best place to dive into piranha is Japan.  Have you ever met the most dangerous fish in the world? Let us know in the comments below. We want to hear from you!

How to Start a Catfish Farm

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How to Start a Catfish Farm
How to Start a Catfish Farm

How to Start a Catfish Farm

Commercial and small catfish farming businesses are gaining popularity every day. There are numerous catfish species worldwide. Some of these species are very large and some are smaller.

Today, catfish are available on the market a lot, and most people love this fish at the table. The number of catfish in natural water resources is decreasing for a number of reasons. Lack of natural living space and a lot of fishing are the most common reasons to reduce the number of catfish species.

How to Start a Catfish Farm. But now people are interested in catfish farming and commercially establish large or small catfish farms. If you like aquaculture, you can also store and manage catfish in ponds. The steps to start this aquaculture are.

Choosing a pond for catfish farming (How to Start a Catfish Farm)

Pond selection plays a very important role in maintaining a successful catfish farming business. Before choosing a pond for catfish farming, you should consider the following:    

  1. There should be no flooding in the selected pond.
  2. The shore of the pond should be strong enough and free of all kinds of licks and holes.
  3. If there is a hole on the shore of the pond, all the fish will escape from the pond.
  4. In the rainy season, the depth should not exceed 4 feet.
  5. It is better to make a long pond instead of a squash pond.
  6. Install the pond in an open space so that sunlight can directly reach it.

Pond management

Catfish can be grown in new and old ponds. However, it is better to grow catfish in old ponds. To use a new pond, you need to use fertilizers such as feces, lime, etc. Applying fertilizer after the construction of the pond makes the soil fertile. If the soil in the pond is not fertile, then it interferes with health and the correct growth of fish.

If growing in an old pond, dry the pond thoroughly before buying a catfish. Remove the excess clay and harmful gases before stockpiling. After that, apply lime and other fertilizers. Cover a specific area with a pond that will breed Minou for the first time. Covering the place with a net can stop the fish from harmful predators such as frogs or snakes.

Snakes do more harm than frogs. After creating the fence, fill the pond with freshwater (2 to 3 feet deep). After 2-3 days to fill the pond, it is a stock minnow.  

Minnow

After completing all pond management tasks, purchase a high-quality catfish minnow. Buy a minnow of 2-3 inches in size from the hatchery. There are many hatcheries that produce high-quality, disease-free and highly productive catfish minnows. After 2-3 days of storage minnow, apply the antifungal drug to the pond. This will help keep minnows from all sorts of diseases.  

Minnow density

Ponds can be used to grow catfish only or in combination with other fish species. When grown catfish with other carp fish, the storage density will be up to 2500 to 3000 per acre. You can increase the number by raising the only catfish in the pond.

Catfish can be grown with other fish species such as tilapia fish, prickly thorns, etc. Growing with pan thorns or tilapia, you can buy 4000-5000 catfish. Cultivating carp fish, tilapia or pangash and catfish will help reduce the cost of feeding. Catfish will eat food provided for carp fish at the bottom of the pond with regular feed intake.

The main advantage of catfish farming with carp fish is that this mixing system reduces the amount of ammonia gas in the pond and ensures a healthy environment for all fish species.  

Feed management

Provide 20% of the daily feed for the first 10 days depending on the weight of the stockpile. Usually, catfish like to eat food at night. Therefore, feed them twice a day. Reduce feed delivery rate to 12-15% after the first 10 days.

Catfish start feeding during the daytime hours when they reach a size of about 3 inches. After 1 month, feed 5% of the feed daily, depending on your weight. To measure the average weight of a catfish, measure a total of 10 fish and divide the total weight by 10.

For example, catfish have a total weight of 2 kg and divide the result by 10. Now the average weight of a catfish is 200 g. Measure the average weight of catfish over a period of time and feed according to the average weight. Feed twice daily (break in the evening first in the morning). How to Start a Catfish Farm.

Always provide adequate feed depending on the age and weight of the fish. Providing less feed than Catfish’s daily needs will prevent it from living properly. And if you feed more than their demand, extra food contaminates water and increases feed costs.  

Winter time

Winter season is not favorable for catfish farming. In this season, various diseases affect catfish. Therefore, special attention should be paid to this season. Normally, change the water regularly every 15 days. Antifungal drugs are applied every month. Keep the depth within 2 feet. If excessive amounts of ammonia gas are found, you can use Ganonex medicines (generally used to remove ammonia gas).  

Catfish collection

Nets can be used to collect fish from the pond. However, it is very difficult to collect catfish from a pond using a net. You can collect a few catfish using a net. However, to collect all the fish at once, you need to remove water from the pond. Always collect fish in the morning or afternoon. Do not collect catfish when the weather is too clear. How to Start a Catfish Farm.

Collecting catfish on an overly sunny day will damage the condition of the fish and experience a lower rate in the fish market.   Catfish have a great demand and price in the market. Almost all types of catfish cook on the table. Catfish are also medicinal and very suitable for patients. As a result, doctors advise patients to eat catfish.

However, catfish farming is a great way to earn some income with your current job. It is also a great source for meeting your family’s nutritional needs every day. On average, you can produce about 4 tonnes of catfish (proper care and care) in the 1-acre pond within 10 months.      

Requirements for Starting Tilapia Fish Farming

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Tilapia Fish Farming
Tilapia Fish Farming

Tilapia Fish Farming  

The food value of fish is recognized worldwide. Protein plays an important role in the human diet for proper growth and other important activities. Fish is considered a good source of protein for the human diet. Compared to other sources of animal protein, fish provide digestible protein with high human growth-promoting value.

Recent studies have demonstrated that fish protein is superior to milk, beef and egg albumin for digestibility as high as 96% of fish. These proteins contain all essential amino acids in the concentrations required in the human diet, lysine, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. This makes the biological value of fish much higher. Therefore, fish is also an effective supplement for people whose diet is the subject of plant origin, which lacks lysine and methionine. Tilapia Fish Farming. 

Fish, in addition to about 20% protein, contains phosphorus, iron, calcium, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B / vitamin B2, and niacin to supplement the human diet. The fish’s flesh is white and is worth 300 to 600 calories for a pound of fish. Fish is also a child’s food, highly nutritious and easily digestible by infants. In other words, the nutritional value of fish is higher than that of beef, lamb, sheep, and poultry.

Best of all, it is easy to cook, taste and taste, and easy to digest. In a recent study, fish meat in human diets has been recorded to reduce cholesterol formation and thus reduce the risk of heart problems because cholesterol has very unsaturated fatty acids. Tilapia Fish Farming 

Pakistan Fish Farm Selection

The location needs special consideration. It should be located in areas where floods are less frequent and should have adequate texture, sufficient water supply, availability of required inputs, and market roads to allow farmers to drain in emergencies. You can also access the rainy season.  

Potential areas for trout farming are northern regions of Pakistan, such as Chitral, Haripur, Kaghan, Kalam, Madyan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Murree (Punjab), Azad Kashmir and Skardu, which have trout farming potential. Temperature, water and soil conditions help the project. Also, in the summer months, local consumption in the summer will be considerable, as tourists from the warmer regions of the region visit the mentioned regions.  

Most regions across Pakistan have the potential for tilapia aquaculture. These areas include Awaran, Khuzdar, Lasbela, Sibbi (Baluchistan), Bannu, Charsada, D.I. Khan, Karak, Kohat, Mardan, Nosara, Swavi (Kyberpak Takhwa), Hyderabad, Nabsha, Sukur, Sikarpur, Thatta (Sind), D.G. Cannes, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Gujarat, Multan, Muja Fagar, Okara, Sahiwal, Behari (Punjab) and other areas with a climate, soil and water conditions. The Fisheries Development Committee should be contacted for a clear understanding of geographic and technical aspects before the project begins.  

Soil sampling for fish farming

Soil samples should be taken from the proposed site to determine the suitability of the fish farm. It should be slightly below the depth that represents the surface and the bottom of the pond. That is, if 3 feet of soil is expected to be excavated, soil samples should be taken at a depth between 3 and 4 feet. The soil auger is drilled to the desired depth to take a soil sample. The soil from the auger head is then placed in a plastic bag and taken to a departmental lab for analysis. The bag should indicate the farm name, location, and depth of where the soil sample was taken.  

Water quality of fish farms

In most areas of Punjab, Suwon comes from the canal or irrigation canal. Tubewell water quality should be analyzed. For this purpose, samples should be taken from preferably sealed bottles and sent to the Fisheries Department’s laboratory for testing of total alkalinity, hardness, pH, nitrogen, total dissolved solids, and other necessary parameters.  

Fish farm design

The production pond/growth pond should be 1 acre in a 2.5-acre area with a length of 2: 1, while the size of the farm pond should be at least ½ acre and 1/8 of the farm area total production area of ​​the fish farm project. Each production and aquaculture plant must have the independent inlet and effluent structures to regulate the pond water levels.  

Fish farm management / Fertilization

In the new pond, the bottom must be emptied before filling with water from 5,000 to 6,000 Kgs of organic fertilizer per acre. Cow dung or poultry waste is the most desirable manure. Similar quantities should be added periodically in subsequent steps to maintain pond productivity from March to October throughout the growth period.    

In addition, fertilizer is applied every other week during the growth period to maintain the productivity of the farm. Different fertilizers require different application procedures. The fertilizer spreads evenly over the pond, while the fertilizer must dissolve in water and spread evenly over the water surface of the pond.

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Start Catfish Farming Business Step By Step Guide

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Catfish Farming
Catfish Farming

Catfish Farming Business

Aquaculture catfish is not only a very popular source of protein in the United States but also a healthy and delicious source of seafood. Catfish farming is a profitable, easy and flexible agriculture-based business.

If you have the right place and you can sell your family’s protein needs or sell them to make more money, you can farm catfish anywhere. There are many catfish species on the market. The type of catfish you want to grow depends on what your target market is, what your feeding plan is, and the size of the pond and area you want to build your farm on. Catfish Farming.

Most catfish species are elastic and many freshwater fish. It can be easily cultivated and harvested quickly in small or large ponds with little effort. A suitable fish size can be a larger tank at 0.25 acres with 20 acres of farmland. All you need is a 5-gallon bucket and a pickup truck to start farming.  

Catfish Farm Start

Catfish The first step in starting a catfish farm is to decide which catfish species you want to grow. It depends on pond size, farm operation, and target market. You need a lot of capital to start a large catfish farm. Commercial catfish farms require 80-100 acres of land and about $ 1 million to run a commercial catfish farm successfully.

However, small farms require a small amount of land and small capital. To start small, you can start with a small pond or from a pond you already have. Larger ponds can make more money per pond and grow bigger fish, reducing fish cost per pound. On large farms, you can purchase consumables in large quantities, saving overhead.  

You also need ventilation. Electric vents that can use electricity are fine, but if electricity is not available in the farm area, consider alternative sources of energy such as gas or diesel engine vents. If you already have a large pond of about 0.25 acres, you can use the pond as a starting pond. Will need to be modified. Catfish ponds should have a smooth, clean bottom and gradually slope.  

Catfish ponds require 20% -30% clay in the soil to minimize leakage. It is necessary to ensure that the water is drained excessively from the pond. Allow 1-2 inches of water to flow out of the drain at a time. The pond depth should be 3 feet from the shallow side and 8 feet from the deep side. If the pond is too shallow, weeds can grow.  

Marketing Plan

To start your Clarias_batrachus marketing plan, decide which catfish type you want to focus on. If you are planning a large catfish farm, sell the fish to a fish processing plant. Many farmers can buy stocks from fish processing plants that sell fish. Profit per pound may be less, but you will replenish your money through volume.  

If you decide to keep catfish smaller, target your local customers directly in your area. Start with relatives, friends, and family. Many customers are interested in buying fresh fish directly from the farm instead of buying frozen and packaged fish.  

Business Plan Preparation

Build detailed feasibility reports for your farm to provide details on capital, expenses, and profits. The feasibility report should include all necessary items for catfish farm operations and production each year (e.g. manpower, feed, fuel, equipment, supplies, overhead, utilities, repairs, and emergency funds). A business plan is needed to secure business funds from lenders. If you already have a loan or mortgage on a real estate or loan mortgage, you may have to pay for it, such as interest on mortgage loans, loans, insurance, and financial expenses. You should include the estimated cost of additional pumps, building construction, vehicles, feeders, and tractors.

Legal Documents

A study on the permits and licenses needed to start a business as a catfish farmer. Talk to other farms in your area. Hire a consultant to help with paperwork or permits. Business consultants can often make things easier than paying a small fee. It must meet all state requirements regarding drainage, construction, retail, tax and other types of permits required.  

Health And Environmental Issues

Take the necessary steps to keep your fishing fish healthy and discover and prevent early signs of the disease. Follow the safety guidelines and drug regulations for fish farms. Learn how to treat diseases and water in an environmentally friendly way to treat chemicals and diseases and pests that are safe to use.

Several chemicals, such as copper sulfate, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine, are FDA approved and can be safely used in ponds to treat catfish disease.  

Farming of fish in cages

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Farming of fish in cages
Farming of fish in cages

Farming of fish in cages Select site

Different criteria should be considered before selecting a site for cage cultivation. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, wave, pollution, algal blooms, water exchange, etc., determine whether species can reproduce in the environment. Other criteria to consider for site selection are weather conditions, shelter, depth, and temperament. Finally, you should consider legal aspects, access, proximity to hatcheries or fish tanks, security, economic, social and market considerations.  

Cage size  

The fact that the cost per unit volume decreases as the cage size increases within the limits of the materials and construction methods used. CMFRI developed 6m diameter and 15m diameter open sea cages to grow fish farming and 2m diameter HDPE cages for seed breeding. Due to easy cage and reduced labor, the ideal size for cultivation cage is 6m. For fingering, a 2m cage can be used.  

Cage frame and net

Various cage materials are available for cage farms. Commonly used materials are high-density polyethylene (HDPE), galvanized iron (GI) pipes, PVC pipes, etc. HDPE frames are expensive but long-lasting. For small groups and fishermen, a cost-effective epoxy-coated galvanized iron (GI) frame is recommended. GI frames have a shorter lifespan than HDPE frames.   Nets of various sizes and materials were tested for cage culture in India. CMFRI used twisted and twisted HDPE nets for growth purposes. It can last more than two seasons. Nylon nets can be used economically, but they have a lighter weight, so more weight must be loaded into the ballast pipe to maintain their shape. While using a new netting material such as sapphire or dynema material in the net cage, you need to pay attention to the cost factor. A net depth in the range of 2 to 5 m is ideal. For an open sea cage culture, a predator net is essential to prevent attacks by predators.   Potential species and criteria for species selection for cage culture The choice of species for cage cultivation should be based on multiple biological criteria such as omnivores or predators, robustness, fast growth, efficient food conversion ability, availability of quality seeds, disease resistance, and market demand.  

stocking

Seed density should be determined by species requirements and operational considerations, but the effect of seed density on growth and production was determined empirically. Storage density also depends on our carrying capacity and feeding habits of cultured species. The optimal stocking density depends on the fish species and size.  

Feed and feed management

Fresh or frozen waste fish, wet pellets (MP) and floating dry pellets are commonly used feeds for growing fish in our cages. Feeding in cages is very easy compared to feeding in ponds. The ration can be divided into equal parts and supplied at regular intervals. Broadcasts can be fed using the feed tray. The feed must be nutritionally complete and provide the proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals needed for growth and health. During storage, the feed cannot deteriorate.  

Harvest  

Harvesting fish in our cages is less labor-intensive compared to in ponds. The floating cage can be towed to a convenient place, and full or partial harvest can be done depending on demand. As an added value, it is also possible to market fish under living conditions.  

Cage management

Cage culture management should optimize production at a minimal cost. Management must be so efficient that aquaculture fish grow at expected rates in relation to feed rates and stockpile density, minimize losses by diseases and predators, monitor environmental parameters and maintain the efficiency of technological facilities. Physical maintenance of the cage structure is also very important. The net cage should be checked regularly. Repairs and adjustments to the fixing rope and the net cage should be carried out without delay. You should also consider changing your net every month as it ensures good water exchange of the net, so you can wash your stool, uneaten food and reduce the impact of fouling to some extent.

Cage net foul

In many cases of cage farming, the fouling of cage nets and other structures has been observed. The net is covered with bio-fowler. Fouling by mollusks, especially edible oysters and sand barnacles, should be checked before growth. Algae mats and other periphytons can be removed by introducing omnivorous vinegar into the cage. Contaminated nets are heavier, increasing drag and losing nets and fish.   To avoid/reduce fouling, the net needs to be changed when needed and can vary from 2 to 4 weeks depending on the fouling strength. During oyster fouling, a net exchange should take place immediately after the seasonal spat drop. Biofowlers can be controlled using herbivore fish such as rabbitfish (Siganus spp.), Capricorn (Etroplus suratensis) and scat (Scatophagus sp.), But large-scale applications need to be evaluated.  

Disease monitoring

Monitoring fish health is essential, and early signs are often seen, especially in changes in behavior during feeding.   summary Cage culture is the most efficient way to raise fish Cages can be built in a variety of appropriate water bodies of various sizes and shapes The stocking density of fish in the cage depends on the farmed species and the growth rate of the fish A cage can produce 20-40kg / m3 under normal conditions Identify ideal places essential for cage farming A proper feed with the most important quality feed for successful cage farming   Regular monitoring of net cages and fish ensures a good harvest from us.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Cage Culture

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fish cage culture
fish cage culture

Fish Cage Culture

Fish cage culture has its pros and cons that must be carefully considered before cage production becomes the chosen method. Potential fish farmers can produce fish without stopping sport fishing in conventional ponds. There is no need to invest large amounts of capital for construction or equipment. Therefore, you can try fish farming without unreasonable risk.

Cage Culture Has The Following Advantages:

Alternatively, many types of water resources can be used, including lakes, reservoirs, ponds, strip pits, streams, and rivers that cannot be harvested.

It requires a relatively low initial investment in existing water bodies.

Harvest is simplified.

Fish observation and sampling have been simplified.

You can use the pond for sports fishing or other species’ cultures.

Fewer manpower requirements.

Job creation for unemployed youth and women.

Extra income to fishermen during the off-season.

Disadvantages

Cage Culture Has Several Distinct Drawbacks. These Include:

The feed must be nutritionally complete and fresh.

LODOS (Low Dissolved Oxygen Syndrome) is an existing problem and may require mechanical aeration.

Foul in the net cage.

The incidence of the disease may be high and the disease may spread rapidly.

Vandalism or poaching is a potential problem.

Navigation problems.

Accumulation of unused feed and feces will lead to water pollution and eutrophication.

Changes in water quality parameters.

Conflict within the community.

Predation by aquatic mammals and birds.

escapement.

Overcrowding of aquatic organisms in cages.

What is Fish Cage Culture And Role In Aquaculture

fish cage culture
fish cage culture
 

Fish Cage Culture

Key Concepts

Fish cage culture. Advantages and disadvantages of Cage culture farming of fishes in cagesSite SelectionCage SizeCage frames and netsPotential species and criteria for selection of StockingFeeds and feed management page management ruling of cage netDisease monitoringSummary

The day cage culture is getting more attention from both researchers and commercial producers. Factors such as increased fish consumption reduced wild fish and worsened farm economy has increased our interest in our fish production.

Many small or limited resource farmers are looking for alternatives to traditional crops. Aquaculture seems to be a rapidly expanding industry and offers opportunities even on a small scale.

Cage culture also gives farmers the opportunity to utilize existing water resources. In most cases, it is of limited use for other purposes.


Main concept

Choosing the right place greatly contributes to the success of the cage farm. On-site selection is important because it can significantly affect economic viability by determining capital expenditures by affecting operating costs, production rates, and mortality.  

Site selection is a key component of any aquaculture and affects both success and sustainability. Designed for the cultivation of shellfish such as milkfish, mullet, covia, pompano, perch, pearl spot, shrimp, crab and lobster, circular cages of various diameters between 2m and 15m were tested and successfully demonstrated in India.

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI). Buying the right sized fish with the right stocking density is another factor that determines the success of agriculture. The stockpile density and size of stockpile fish varies by species.

Proper feeding, quality monitoring, and cage cleaning contribute to the success of cage farming. Proper care of the cage installed in an ideal location will result in a yield of 20-40 kg / m 3 in various fish species.

Cage farming involves growing fish in existing water resources while wrapped in a net cage that allows free water flow.

Aquaculture production system made of floating nets of round or square shape with the rich frame, netting material and mooring system (rope, buoy, anchor, etc.) can catch and cultivate much fish and install them in reservoirs. River, lake or sea.

Catwalk and railings are built around the floating cage battery. There are four types of fish breeding cages: i) fixed cage, ii) floating cage, iii) underwater cage and iv) underwater cage.

Economically speaking, cage culture is impacts farming with high yields and lowest carbon emissions.

Farming fish in existing water bodies continues to require one of the biggest constraints of farming on land: water with clean oxygen. Cage farms are deployed in a way that utilizes natural currents that provide oxygen and other suitable natural conditions to the fish.  

Given the high yields that can be obtained from a cage culture system, it can play an important role in increasing overall fish production in India. By adopting a cage culture, you can better take advantage of India’s long coastline, coastal conditions, and the appropriate location of the vast rider area available in other low-utility waters.

Because of the low investment and very little or no land area, this method of farming is suitable as a source of income for small income fishermen. This can be accepted as a home / female activity, as labour is minimal and can be managed by a small family.

The design of the cage and accessories can be customized according to the individual farmer’s requirements.  

Integrated Fish Farming – Rationale And Scope

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Integrated Fish Farming – Rationale And Scope


Today’s economy is primarily based on agriculture and software development in the field of information technology. To make rapid progress in rural areas, we need to focus on our strategy. Conserving natural resources, improving efficient resource use, improving productivity and profitability, and improving quality and competitiveness by reducing production costs.

Water is emerging as an international challenge, and the most efficient management, not only recycling but also recycling, is paramount. Recycling of crop residues and agriculture by-products containing nitrogen-fixed legumes, bio-fertilizers, vermiculum, agriculture and forestry, nutrient-solubilizing microorganisms, and efficient nutrients ingesting plant varieties is the strategy of research. In order to minimize production costs, research is underway on improving the efficiency of cultivation, agricultural machinery in cultivation, and agricultural and resource conservation technologies.

Integrated farming is one of the best examples of mixed farming. In East and Southeast Asian countries, mainly various forms of agricultural practices are one of the important ecologically balanced sustainable technologies. This technique involves a multicultural combination of fish integrated with crop or livestock production. An important component of integrated fish farming in farm waste recycling is very beneficial to farmers by improving the production economy and reducing the environmental adverse effects of agriculture.

Integrated fish farming refers to the simultaneous culture of fish or shellfish along with other cultural systems. It can also be defined as a sequential connection between two or more cultural practices. In general, integrated farming means the production or culture of two or more agricultural practices, but when fish become a major component, this is called integrated fish farming. Fish farming can be integrated with multiple systems for efficient resource utilization.

The integration of aquaculture with livestock or crops provides quality protein food, resource utilization, farm waste recycling, job creation, and economic development. Integrated fish farming is a well-developed cultural practice in China, followed by Hungary, Germany, and Malaysia. Our country India is organic-based and comes from agriculture and livestock. Integrated aquaculture is accepted as a sustainable form. For integration, you can use recycled wastewater from food processing plants, as well as from the agricultural industry.

Integrated aquaculture is used as a sustainable food production model according to certain principles.

Waste from one biological system is used as a nutrient for the second biological system.

The integration of fish and plants increases diversity and results in multiculturalism that produces multiple products.

Water is reused through biological filtration and recirculation.

Local food production provides access to healthy food and improves the local economy.

Integrated form ecosystem

Integrated aquaculture
The process of capturing solar energy,
Production of organic substances by primary producers (auto nutrients)
Utilization by phagocytes
degradation of autotrophs and phagotrophic by saprotrophs,
Release of nutrients for autotrophs.
Advantages of an integrated fish farm
Efficient use of waste from various cultural practices for fish production.
Reduce the extra cost of supplementation and fertilization.
It is an artificial, balanced ecosystem without waste.
It provides more means of employment.
Reduce input, increase output and economic efficiency.
Integrated fish farming provides fish with meat (chicken, duck, beef, pork, etc.), milk, vegetables, fruits, eggs, grains, fodder, mushrooms, etc.
This practice has the potential to increase the production and socio-economic status of the weakest parts of our society.
Types of integrated fish farms
Basically, there are two types of integrated aquaculture.
a) Agriculture and Fisheries
b) livestock farming
Fish livestock farming is realized as an innovation for the recycling of organic waste and the production of high-quality protein at a low cost.
(a) Agriculture and Fisheries
1) Rice-Cucumber Farming In India, this agriculture is practiced in Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, and Assam, where there is enough water in the rice fields. Rice fields hold water for 3-8 months a year. Interest in this practice has diminished because of the recent use of pesticides to protect high-yielding rice fields.
This practice can be done in the following types of paddy field.
i) The surrounding type of paddy field grows in the middle.
ii) Central pond type-the area where the paddy field grows around.
iii) Side Trench System-Trenches are provided on one or both sides of the intermediate slope area.
The various rice used in this culture is Panidhan, Jalmagna, CR26077, Tulsi, etc. The major Indian carp are Channa spp, Oreochromis mossambicus, Clarias batrachus, Anabas testudineus, silver carp, grass carp, and common carp. The total yield of these practices is about 90 integers in 2 paddy fields, and the fish production is about 1000 kg per hectare.
2) Gardening-breeding
The horticulture-breeding system includes a culture of fruits, vegetables, and flowers on the banks of a pond. Fruits and vegetables contain a variety of nutrients, and the Indian Council of Medical Research recommends 85 grams of fruits and 300 grams of vegetables daily. For the production of horticultural crops, areas adjacent to the inner and outer embankments of the pond are used. The choice of plants is the main criterion for the success of this system. Plants should be dwarf, seasonal, evergreen, conservative and less shaded. The fruit crops you can use are mango, banana, papaya, coconut, lime, etc. Vegetables such as brinjal, tomato, cucumber, gourd, pepper, carrot, tan, turnip, spinach, peas, cabbage, cauliflower, ladies’ finger cans grow seasonally throughout the year. The embankment flower farm is also useful. We can use plants such as Rose, Jasmine, Gladiolus, Marigold, and Chrysanthemum, which provide additional income for farmers and beauty on the farm. This system provides 20-25% more profits than aquaculture.
Perch aquaculture includes mushroom fish systems, fish farming systems, and feed crop integration. Pond bungees can also be used to grow legumes and seed crops. Aquatic cash cuttings such as Makhana (Euryale Ferox) and Singhara (Trapa spp) integration can also be performed with air-breathing or carnivorous fish.
(b) Livestock farming:
Poultry fish farm
The system uses poultry excrement from fully poultry waste for fish culture. The production of fish obtained is about 5000 kg/ha/yr. 1250kg chicken and 70,000 eggs approximately 500 to 600 No. 1 ha Raising birds in a pond. Birds of the Rhode Island or Leghorn breed are preferred over others. You need 0.3-0.4 square meters of space / trillion. Hoppers are used to feed and minimize feed waste. Poultry algae (stratum) are supplied with starter, grower, and broiler feeds depending on age. In India, it is practiced in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Kerala, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, and Tamilnadu.
2) Duck meat fish culture
Ducks are commonly called biological aerators. They are raised in low-cost homes on the banks of the pond. This farming is conducted in Tamil Nadu, Assam, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura, Orissa, Karnataka, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh. The ‘Indian Runner’ and ‘Khaki Campbell’ varieties are more suitable for this culture. About 300 ducklings (some seeds breed 450-500 each) are bred to grow 1 hectare. nail. Ducks not only act as a live abandoner by watering them with webbing but also control aquatic weeds (Lemna, Azola, etc.), aquatic insects, mollusks, tadpoles and more. The total output from this type of culture is about 3500-5000 kg fish, 18000-18500 eggs and 600 kg duck meat. Duck dung is used as fertilizer for primary production.
3) Pork – fish culture
This system has advantages over other systems. Waste from 30-35 pigs can produce 1 ton of ammonium sulfate, and 40-45 pigs are suitable for fertilizing 1ha water bodies under multicultural. Each pig needs about 3-4 square meters of floor space. This integrated system is very common in China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Hungary, and some European countries. White Yorkshire, Hampshire, and Landrace are popular varieties for integration with fish. Pigs need clean housing that provides adequate protection from bad weather. The pig eats a pig mash consisting of rice bran, rice polish, bran, broken corn, peanut oil cake, fish flour mineral mixture, salt, etc. You can also mix spoiled vegetables. The system is about 3000-4000 kg/ha/yr fish, 4500 kg/yr pork and 800 no. Of piglets every year.
4) Beef form
This is a common practice worldwide. Cow dung is the most abundant in terms of availability, and healthy cows can excrete 4000-5000 kg feces and 3500-4000 liters of urine annually. The board of cow fertilizer is lower than other livestock fertilizers. About 5-6 cows can provide manure suitable for 1ha ponds in addition to 9000kg of milk and about 3000-4000kg of fish each year. To simplify the handling of cow fertilizer, fish farms should be built near ponds.
5) Goat meat fish integration
It is considered a poor man’s cow, and chlorine excrement is considered a very good organic fertilizer. Chlorine droppings contain 60% organic carbon, N-2.7%, P-1.78%, K-2.88%, and urine is equally rich in N & P. At least 50-60 goats are essential for fertilizing a 1 ha pond. Chlorine should be protected from excessive heat in a dry, safe and comfortable home. Goat varieties are Jamanapari, Beetal, Barbari, milk for Bengal, Sirohi, and Deccani for meat. Chlorine is an optional feeder and consumes Berseem, Napier grass, Cowpea Soybean, Mulberry, etc. This integration can provide 3500-4000 kg fish/ha/year without additional supply and fertilizer.
6) Rabbit fish integration
Rabbit meat is preferred by most health-conscious consumers due to its low fat compared to other meats. Important breeding species are Soviet Chinchilla, Gray Giant, and White Giant. Rabbits are raised in cages, hutches and floor systems (the floor must be treated with cement). Rabbit feces contain -50% organic carbon, N-2%, P-1.33% and K-1.2%. Rabbit feces have high nitrogen content and low moisture, making them a good quality fertilizer for plankton production. It is estimated that the feces of 300 rabbits will be sufficient for fertilization of 1 ha pond.