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Induced Breeding In Indian Major Carps

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Induced Breeding In Indian Major Carps
Hypophysation refers to breeding fish with pituitary extract. Brazilians developed this technique. In India, H.L.Chaudhary and K.H.Ahi pioneered the use of this technology for major Indian carpets. Incentive breeding methods to encourage fish to release gamete by pituitary extract or the application of hormones or chemicals.


Induction discharges occur during the start of the southwest monsoon season (June) where there is an accumulation of rainwater in ponds and a slight decrease in temperature. It is considered that the ordinary pituitary carp has better results, but in most cases, the gland is used the same species as Gonadotropin Human Crop (HGC). The administered dose of the pituitary gland depends on the maturity stage of the fish, and the environmental condition (rain and temperature). A primary dose of 1 – 2mg / kg and the second dose of 6 – 8 mg/kg of the bodyweight of fish is administered after six hours. After injection, the seed fish must be transferred into the breeding hat after the ratio of two men to one woman. The breeding hat is a box enclosure by using a cloth. There are about 50,000 to 1,00,000 hatched eggs in a cap of size 2 x 1 x 1 m. A facility is also provided to open and close the upper flap. The corners of the garment on each side are attached to poles to keep them safe. The bottom should not be in contact with the ground. The water temperature is to be kept at 26 – 31C. A leak occurs after 16 – 18 hours and the burial falls into the outer cap. The breeding occurs regularly after 4 – 6 times the second injection. Because of the nature of these fish, they only spawn once, unlike rohu and metal that have the potential to leak again after one or two months.
Injection method
Injecting within the muscles administered (pituitary or ovaprim or ovatide) into the muscle is a caudal peduncle between the end of the dorsal fin and above the lateral line. It is often practiced and is the most effective and least risky method.
The in-peritoneal injection is administered in a soft region of the body such as the pectoral fin base. This method could damage the unit or liver.
The cranium is called an intravenous injection. This method is very dangerous and damages the brain.
CALCULATION OF CALCULATION:
The dose is calculated based on the weight of the fish.

FISH WEIGHT x Ovaprim® DOSAGE = SIZE OF INITIAL

1) 0.2 kg             0.5 ml / kg                      0.1 ml
2) 50 gm             0.5 µl / gm                       25 µl
THANKS TO ALL FRIENDS WHO READ THIS FOR FUTURE INFORMATION SUBSCRIBE US.

Common Carps Fish Farming Complete Information From Breeding To Harvesting

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Common Carps Fish Farming Complete Information From Breeding To Harvesting

  1. Broodstock selection and segregation
  2. Breeding of common carp
  3. Fry Production
  4. Fingerling Production
  5. Grow production
  6. References

The common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) belongs to the Cyprinidae family. It is a kind of freshwater and also present in brackish water. It is distributed all over the world. The length at first maturity measures 34.9 cm and varies from 25 to 36 cm. Adults live in warm, deep, slow-flowing and calm waters.

The common carp is resistant in nature and can tolerate a wide variety of conditions. Generally, it favors large bodies of water with slow or slow flow water with soft bottom sediments. Both adults and juveniles feed on the different benthic organisms and plant material. Adults often undertake considerable migration from spawning to suitable backwaters and flooded grasslands. The larvae survive in warm waters, especially in the shallow submerged vegetation area.

The IUCN Red List status has included common carp in the “vulnerable” category.

Broodstock selection and segregation

Proper selection of breeders is very important for better breeding and growth results. Fish characteristics, such as the fastest and largest growth recorded with the desired body shape, are considered for the selection of breeding fish. It is not advisable to choose the breeding of fish of the same offspring or offspring, as it results in inbreeding depression. In addition, it leads to low growth performance and preponderance of deformed fry.
Two to three-year-old fish (weighing about 2 to 3 kg) are suggested for ideal breeding. They can be used for several years since larger fish generate more and more eggs than smaller fish. About 1 to 1.5 lakhs of eggs are produced per kg of fish body weight.
Three or four months before the breeding season, breeding fish are separated and stored in segregated ponds to avoid unwanted spawning. Secondary sex characters distinguish male and female fish. Women have a swollen abdomen due to the developing ovaries and in men, the slurry is exuded when the abdomen is gently pressed into the genital pore. Segregated farmed fish should not be kept in overcrowded conditions. They are fed an artificial diet rich in protein for rapid gonadal development. Foods high in carbohydrates should be avoided to avoid a fat deposition. It is required to avoid stress through the network.
Breeding of common Carps
Propagation of artificial stimulation.
The common carp naturally reproduces in confined waters. Several propagation methods have been developed in different areas. The spawning of the ponds is easier when the farmer has no hatchery. It is possible to breed common carp in cement tank or hapa and then fertilized eggs or larvae can be transferred to the nursery tank.
Selected breeding fish are introduced into the hapa without any dose administered in the proportion of two males and one female. Spawning takes place within 24 to 36 hours. Better fertility and a good spawning response is noticed when the flow is maintained with new water. Fiber is commonly used to collect fertilized eggs, due to the adhesive nature of the egg. The collected eggs are changed to another hapa. After three days, the newborn fry are transferred to the nursery breeding tank.
Artificial propagation by hormone by extraction method.
When the condition is not favorable for successful natural spawning or there is a requirement for the production of a greater amount of fry, the hypophyzation technique should be used to induce fish. Induced spawning and larval rearing provide greater control in the hatchery compared to natural propagation, in addition to ensuring a better survival rate when the fry are raised in indoor conditions.
Breeding fish are selected from segregated ponds and used directly for breeding. The response to propagation is less in female fish and, therefore, it is advisable to inject twice the required number. The number of men to be injected will be approximately two-thirds of the number of women injected. The dose and sequence of the injection are not standardized and the practices vary considerably. The administered dose (ovatide) is 0.2 to 0.3 ml/kg of fish for the male and for the female it is 0.4 – 0.5ml / kg of body weight of the fish. The dose is injected intramuscularly between the base of the dorsal fin and above the lateral line. Male and female managed fish are kept separately. Before extraction, the fish are anesthetized with ethyl-M-aminobenzoate at 100 ppm (bath for 3 to 5 minutes) to avoid handling difficulties. The female fish is stripped by gently squeezing the abdomen towards the anal. Easily flowing eggs are collected in a container. Similarly, the male is stripped of milk that is also collected in the same container. The female releases about 150,000 eggs per kg of body weight and the size of the egg range between 0.9 – 1.9 mm in diameter.
For a liter of eggs, the two or three-liter grout is essential for a better fertilization rate. The eggs and the milk are properly mixed with feathers, as they agglomerate due to the adhesive nature. The sticky nature of eggs can be addressed using sodium chloride and carbamide (4 g of sodium and 3 g of carbamide dissolved in a liter of water). Initially add this solution while mixing the eggs and the grout for approximately 5 to 10 minutes. As the eggs begin to swell, a small amount of solution is added at regular intervals. Within 1 to 1.30 hours, the swelling of the eggs stops completely and the first excision occurs. However, to completely remove the adhesive layer, the eggs are washed with the tannic acid solution (0.05 – 0.07 percent) for 20 seconds and for approximately 5 times. Each time 0.01 percent water is added to the stock solution. Finally, the eggs are washed in freshwater for approximately 5 minutes and are now ready for incubation.
The eggs are incubated in a simple double hapa. The incubation hapa consists of 2 x 2 x 1 m with a fine mesh size of 0.5 mm with an inner hapa also made of the same material with a mesh size of 2.0 – 2.5 mm. The eggs spread inside the hapa. The hatched larvae fall through the largest meshes of the inner hapa and are retained by the outer hapa. After hatching, the inner hapa with dead eggs, eggshells, and other debris is removed to prevent deterioration of water quality. Eggs are stored inside the hapa after hatching and transferred to the nursery tank.
Artificial propagation by the hormone.
The success rate of hypophysation of common carp is 60 to 70 percent. The result will be poor if breeding fish have not been fed enough protein-rich food. The hypophysation is done in a small tank or hapa where the eggs are dispersed. Submerged aquatic plants, kakaban or fiber are used as substrates for laying eggs. After three days, the newborn larvae are collected from the hapa and stored in the nursery pond.
Fry Production
The nursery tanks are generally shallow and have a depth of 0.5 m. The three-day-old newborn larvae are stored at a density of one million fry in a 20 m2 cement cistern. The suggested water flow is 1 liter per minute per square meter. Live food organisms are collected from nature and fed for better results in terms of survival and growth. Farmers can feed the larvae with initial food and brine shrimp, if possible. Larvae reach 1-2 cm within 15-20 days of the cultivation period.
For spawning, the breeding ponds are usually small (0.02 – 0.05 ha) and shallow with a depth of 1 m. Seasonal ponds are preferred than perennial ponds considering the absence of aquatic weeds and weed fish. A three-day fry is 5 – 6 mm in size. It is raised for 2 to 3 weeks when it reaches a size of approximately 25-30 mm. The population density varies widely and ranges between 10 and 40 lakhs per hectare. When the population density is higher, additional supplementary feeding is essential for better survival and better growth. If raised in a well-prepared pond, the attainable survival rate is approximately 60 to 70 percent.
The preparation of the pond is exactly similar to the major Indian carp And this will be provided in next Article link below.

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Indian Major Carps And Chinese Carps Fish Farming Complete Guide A to Z

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Indian Major Carps  And Chinese Carps Fish Farming Complete Guide A to Z

  1. Types of Commercial Carps
  2. Caps polyculture
  • Preparations of pre-storage ponds
  • Stocking of ponds
  • Management of post-stocking ponds

Types of commercial carps

Tents have been the pillar of cultural practice in India and are the three main Indian tents, namely, catla, rohu, and mrigal, along with three other exotic tents, namely the silver carp, the herbivorous carp and the common carp that contribute more than 85% of aquaculture. Country production

Technological interventions during the last three decades have led to an increase the average levels of national production in ponds and tanks from approximately 600 kg/ha to more than 2,000 kg/ha. Several farmers and entrepreneurs are achieving higher production levels of 6-8 tons/ha/year in states such as Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, and Haryana. Several combinations of farming practices have been developed in the country to adapt to fish species, water resources, fertilizer availability, food resources, etc. and also the investment potential of farmers. It has been shown that carp cultivation is highly compatible with other agricultural practices and also has a high potential for recycling organic waste.
Carps polyculture
Carp polyculture in India has been using a large amount of organic waste, such as manure or poultry droppings, and production levels of 1-3 tons/ha/year can be obtained with the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers alone The provision of food significantly improves fish production and production levels of 4-8 t / ha/year are obtained using a judicious combination of both food and fertilizers.
The practice packages, as developed in the research institute, have been adopted in ponds ranging from 0.04-10.0 ha in area and 1-4 m in depth in different regions of the country, resulting in variable production rates. While small and shallow stagnant ponds have several inherent problems, which negatively affect the growth of fish, large and deep ponds have their own management problems. Ponds 0.4-1.0 ha in size with a water depth of 2-3 m are considered the best for better handling. Management practices in carp polyculture involve environmental and biological manipulations, which can be broadly classified as pre-storage, storage, and post-storage operations.
Preparations of pre-storage ponds
The preparation of the ponds implies making the ponds free of weeds and predators and generating adequate natural foods to guarantee high survival rates and good growth and, therefore, yields. The control of aquatic weeds, the elimination of unwanted biota and the improvement of soil and water quality are the important aspects related to this management phase. Details on the control of predatory fish and weeds have been discussed in nursery management.
Stockin of ponds
The ponds are stored with seeds of the appropriate size after acclimatizing to the new habitat when ready after fertilization. Both the size and density of the fish are important to achieve high yields. Fry over 100 mm in size is recommended for planting in culture ponds. The storage of smaller fish can cause higher mortality and slow growth during the first months. In intensive polyculture ponds, a size of 50-100 g is preferred for planting to achieve greater survival of more than 90% and better growth. In general, a density of 5,000 fries is maintained as a standard storage rate per ha for carp polyculture for a production target of 3-5 t / ha/year. Load densities of 8,000-10,000 fry/ha have been used for production levels of 5-8 t / ha/year. Fish production levels higher than 10-15 t / ha/year are reached by resorting to the population at a density of 15,000-25,000 / ha. In carp polyculture, the proportion of species is maintained to minimize interspecific and intraspecific competition for food available at various levels and trophic areas in a pond. Two or more species that occupy different niches could be used in a pond to exploit the food available in several areas. While it has been shown that a combination of six species, namely catla, silver carp, rohu, herbivorous carp, mrigal, and common carp, is the ideal combination for carp cultivation in India, the combination of species is largely decided measured by seed availability and market demand. Of these catla and silver carp are surface feeders, rohu is a column feeder, grass carp is a macro-vegetation feeder, and mrigal and common carp are bottom feeders. A proportion of 30-40% of surface feeders (silver carp and catla), 30-35% of medium water feeders (rohu and grass carp) and 30-40% of bottom feeders (common and mrigal carp) are They commonly adopt depending on the productivity of the pond.
Management of post-storage ponds
Fertilization: the ponds are classified into three groups according to the nutrient levels of the soil substrate. Fertilization measures for carp production ponds are recommended as follows. While 20-25% of the total amount of organic fertilizers is applied as a basal dose, a fortnight before storage, the remaining amount is applied in equal installments every two months. Other commonly used organic fertilizers include poultry litter, pig manure, duck droppings, domestic sewage, etc., depending on availability. Azolla, a nitrogen-fixing fern has been standardized as a biofertilizer for aquaculture at an application rate of 40 t / ha/year, demonstrating the complete complement of nutrients necessary for intensive carp cultivation (100 kg of nitrogen, 25 kg of phosphorus, 90, kg potassium and 1,500 kg of organic matter). The debris resulting from the decomposition of the material applied in the ponds serves as a trophic component of carp and prawns. Bioprocess organic manure, the biogas suspension, has been standardized as manure in carp culture, at application rates of 30-45 t / ha/year, with different advantages in terms of lower oxygen consumption and faster rates of nutrient release.
Supplementary feeding: supplementary feeding in the carp polyculture is generally limited to the mixture of peanut/mustard oil cake and rice bran. With the shift towards intensive fish farming, other ingredients from animal and vegetable protein sources are being incorporated. To keep these components together in the feed, granulation is performed, which in turn helps the stability of the water and the reduction of waste. Grass tents are fed with preferred aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla, Najas, Ceratophyllum, duckweeds, etc.) kept in enclosures in selected corners of the pond. You can also use marginal vegetation, pastures and other fodder, banana leaves, and plant debris.
In terms of food dispensing, food mixtures are provided in the form of dough in trays or jute bags hung at different locations in the pond. It is recommended to feed preferably twice a day. Quantitative food requirements are important since insufficient food depresses growth while overfeeding results in food waste. The feed is made at 5% of the initial biomass of the storage material during the first month and more at a variable scale of 3-1% in the following months, depending on the estimated fish biomass at monthly intervals.
Aeration and water exchange: aeration can be used mechanically to increase the concentration of dissolved oxygen in ponds, especially required in intensive crops with higher population density. Paddlewheel aerators, vacuum aerators, and submersible pond aerators are the common aerators used. 4 to 6 aerators/ha of water area is required to meet the demand for dissolved oxygen in intensive aquaculture.
Pond aeration
Water exchange is another important activity, considered crucial in intensive aquaculture. Due to the continuous accumulation of metabolites and the unused food in decomposition, water quality deteriorates, which leads to the slow growth of fish species and, often, disease outbreak. Therefore, it is necessary to replace a certain amount of water at regular intervals, especially during the later part of the cultivation period in case of intensive cultivation practices.
Health management: Before planting, a 3-5% potassium permanganate bath should be given for 15 seconds. The incidence of the disease is quite common in high population densities. Although mortality is rarely observed in well-managed ponds, fish growth is severely affected due to parasitic infection that must be treated.
Harvest
The fish collection is usually done after a cultivation period of 10 months to a year. However, fish that reach marketable size can be harvested periodically to reduce the density pressure in the pond and, therefore, provide enough space for the growth of other fish.

Fish Farming types , Techniques For Fish Farming

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Fish Farming types, Techniques For Fish Farming 


Fish farming techniques

Methods of fish farming

Fish farming can range from ‘backyard’ food ponds to large-scale industrial enterprises. The farming system can be expressed in terms of input level.
In Extensive fish farming, economic and labor sources are generally scarce. Natural food production plays a very important role, and system productivity is relatively low. Fertilizers can be used to increase fertility and thus fish production.
Cultivating semi-extensive fish farming requires medium inputs, and fertilizer and/or extra feeding increases fish production. This means higher labor costs and feed costs, but higher fish production is usually more than compensated.

Intensive fish farming involves the storage of high-level inputs and ponds to maximize fish. Fish are fed extra food, while natural food production plays a minor role. In this system, fish storage density (susceptibility to diseases and lack of dissolved oxygen) can lead to management difficulties. Higher productivity costs force a person to bring higher market prices to make fish farms economically viable.

Tilapia Fish Farming Complete Guide A to Z

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Tilapia Fish Farming Complete Guide A to Z


This proposed farm will begin with semi-intensive fish farming techniques, which require water drilling and locally available essential equipment for inland fish farming. The employer can consider the option of a well of tubes and aerators powered by solar energy (for intensive agriculture) according to his criteria, the cost of which varies according to the choice on the country of origin of the system, the coverage area, and the water table.


The farm will produce GIFT Mono-sex tilapia (genetically enhanced cultivated tilapia), which is one of the strains of Nile Tilapia and was successfully introduced in Pakistan. It is a resistant fish and the population density of this species is several times higher than conventional carp, that is, without aeration, 6,000 of Tilapia can be stored per acre compared to conventional carp that have a density of 600-1,200 per acre. It has the ability to gain weight of 600-900 grams in 08 months. This project will produce an average weight of 800 grams per fish in 08 months. It is reported that the optimum temperature for tilapia culture is 20-30 Cº or more. The ideal DO2 level for tilapia culture is 4-5 mg / l. Free CO2 is another factor that negatively affects food consumption and, therefore, the growth of fish. But, Nile tilapia can tolerate a CO2 concentration greater than 20 mg / l and is unlikely to have an adverse effect on fish in intensive farming systems unless the concentration of free CO2 reaches 100 mg / l.

The total production time will be 08 months with the following stages:
Procurement of Fingerlings
The project will acquire Tilapia GIFT Mono-sex (genetically enhanced cultivated Tilapia), with a dry weight of 0.2 grams. This world-famous species, in particular, has also been successfully introduced in Pakistan. This resistant fish has a high population density and even without aeration, 6,000-7,000 of tilapia can be stored per acre compared to conventional tents that have a density of 600-1,200 per acre. Although fry can be imported, the local hatchery is now also available.
Nursery
Immediately after the acquisition, the fish will be stored in the Nursery pond. A one-acre farm pond will initially be used as a nursery pond and after the fry gain 50 grams, they will move to grow in ponds and the nursery pond will function as one of the growing ponds. This is the stage where mortality is highest. In the case of tilapia, best practices are even reported with a mortality of 11-16%, but on average the total mortality is 20-25%. The main reasons for mortality are stress due to transport and disease. In addition to these, mortality may also be due to population density above the maximum level depending on the type of farm. 1% of fish loss is also reported due to fish predators.
Growing In Ponds or (Semi-Intensive Mono-culture Pond)
The fry will remain in the growth ponds until they gain more than 600 grams. With the feeding of soybean-based paddles, the average weight is 800 grams and in terms of total weight / biological mass of the fish sold will be 18 tons in the first year.
Fish harvest
The fish will be harvested through nets based on rupees for every 40 Kg delivered to the collection work. The rate varies according to the practices of the region. The fish is packaged conventionally in polypropylene bags, but now farmers and progressive merchants pack it in polystyrene boxes to improve quality during transport and handling.

The product can be sold throughout the country, especially in areas that have a taste for freshwater fish. These include the non-coastal areas of Balochistan, Inner Sind, Punjab, and KP. The Punjab market is well established for Tilapia (Gujranwala and Rawalpindi offer higher prices). Large stores in major cities such as Hyper Star, Makro, and Metro, etc. They can be big customers as long as their quantity and quality requirements are met.
Investment Required for Semi-Intensive Tilapia Aquaculture in Pakistan
An investment of approximately Rs. 3 million are required to install a semi-intensive tilapia farm in Pakistan. All figures in this financial model have been calculated for an installed capacity of 30 tons/year with an initial capacity utilization of 24 tons/year reaching a maximum of 27 tons in the second year. A detailed financial model has been developed to analyze the commercial viability of tilapia aquaculture. Several assumptions related to costs and income, together with the results of the analysis, are described in the pre-feasibility study of tilapia fish farming in Pakistan by SMEDA.

Good characteristics of the pond for fish farming

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Good characteristics of the pond for fish farming


Freshwater fish are raised in ponds. Water is taken from a lake, stream, well or another natural source is converted into a pond. Water passes through the pond once and then discharges, or can be partially altered to maintain one percent of the water contained in a system. Pond systems that produce high yields of fish only replace lost water through evaporation and filtration.
Water flow generally reduces the production of pond systems in the tropics. Fish farms vary from a few dozen square meters to several hectares. Small ponds are commonly used for spreading and small fish production, while large ponds are used for growth periods. Ponds over 10 hectares are difficult to handle and are not very popular in most producers.

The pools described here only serve as examples. The type of pond a farmer will make depends greatly on local resources, equipment, and conditions. Ponds are usually found on soft slopes. They are rectangular or square in shape, well-shaped dikes and do not collect water flowing from the surrounding basin.

It is important to have enough water available to fill all ponds within a reasonable period and to maintain the same level of pond water. You should also be able to drain the pond completely when you are going to harvest the fish. Background slopes need to be 2: 1 or 3: 1 (each height meter requires 2 or 3 meters horizontal spacing), which allows easy access to the pool and reduces the risk of erosion problems does.

To prevent fish theft, try to find a pond near your home. Another way to keep thieves away from their fish pond is to place bamboo poles or branches in the water, which makes fishing with nets and poles impossible. In addition to preventing theft, letters and branches provide extra natural food to the fish.

Important characteristics of the fish pond were presented.
Good characteristics of the pond for fish farming
Location
Select a sloping land, taking advantage of existing landforms.
Construction
The ponds can dig in the ground. They may be partially above or below the original surface. The slope and the bottom must be well filled during construction to avoid erosion and sewage. The soil must contain at least 25% of soil. Stones, grasses, branches and other unwanted objects should be removed from the dikes.
Depth
The depth should be 0.5-1.0 m at the shallow end, slope 1.5-2.0 m at the end of the drain.
Training
The best shape for pools is rectangular or square.
Side slope
Make pools with 2: 1 or 3: 1 slope on each side.
Drain
Gate valves, deflector panels or vertical indicator pipes must be provided. The drain should not take more than 3 days.
Flow lines
Entrance lines must be filled to fill each pond in 3 days. If surface water is used, incoming water must be filtered to remove unwanted plants or animals.
The total amount of water
In a few weeks, there should be enough water to fill all the ponds on the farm and fill them in the growing season. 
Dikes
The dikes should be wide enough to allow cutting. Deck roads want to be made of gravel. It should be weed anyway. 
Orientation
Carefully locate the ponds to benefit from mixing water with air. In areas where the wind causes wave erosion, place the long sides of the pond at right angles to the wind. Use a hedge or tree wind protection where necessary.

Fertilization Of Fish Pond, Fertilize of Fish pond

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 Fertilization Of Fish Pond, Fertilize of Fish pond

Nitrogen and phosphorus are the basic nutrients required for phytoplankton development. In Pakistan, we have two sources of organic fertilizer, poultry and cow manure.
Suggested inorganic fertilizers are urea, d ammonium phosphate, single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and
Nitrophos
For the following two compounds, one level of fertilizer applied to fertilizers contains approximately the same amount of nitrogen and alkaline soil for acid and neutral soil for phosphorus.
Case 1
D ammonium phosphate
Urea
Cow manure
D ammonium phosphate
Urea
Chicken manure
5 kg / week ammonium sulfate
1.5kg / week nitrophos
500kg / week Single Super Phosphate
Case 2
Urea 2 weeks
15kg / week Caudong or chicken
300 cupcake mandiri
The following fertilizers, along with liquid fertilizers, can also be used to enhance water production capacity, especially. In the alkaline areas of this province.
Phosphorus Plus
Urea
Caudong or
Poultry manure
Nutricium
5 kg / acre / week
Kg / acre / week
250 kg / acre / week
10kg / acre / straight

Different fertilizers require different application methods: fertilizer should be evenly dispersed before filling the bottom of the pond, ie five or five times inorganic fertilizer urea and other
DAP dissolves fairly quickly and can be kept directly in pond water. D-Ammonium phosphate, a great deal of effort to dissolve and should be mixed in water in a bucket or basin and dissolved as much as possible before dividing in the pond. However, careful fertilizers need to be incorporated in stable hot months, so that the plankton is a direct indicator of the severity of the openings (see Water Quality Management).

One second 30-40 cm What is recommended for nursery and growing PO Transparency is much higher than these recommendations should be applied to 1 or 2 pounds, depending on the amount and intensity of the sun once a week. ۔ Watercolor due to bloom is also a good indicator when a strong green colour is maintained by the addition of fertilizers when the green colour ends to wander.

Prestocking Management Of Fish Pond How to prepare fish pond before stocking

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Prestocking Management Of Fish Pond
Pond management must be scientifically managed to provide maximum fish production. Fish culture in the ponds is essentially a three-tier culture system, which involves setting the nursery ponds for 2-3 weeks (2-3 cm) for a period of about 2-3 months, followed by about 3 months for 2 months. 3 weeks old fry is raised. Nurture the pond before the fungal stage (8.12 cm) before it is finally placed in the ponds to grow to the fish of the table. To enhance fish production and increase productivity, the management practices package should be strictly followed. The purpose of precasting management is to ensure the availability of natural food and sufficient oxygen dissolved. The pre-stored section of management includes the following configuration steps.


1. Drying of ponds
If possible, the ponds should be completely sun-dried. Improves fertility and affects the physical-chemical and biological condition of the pond. Drying fish ponds will kill fish parasites and their larvae and other disease-causing organisms. It will also eliminate unwanted or grass fishes.
2. Elimination and control of water weeds and algae
Fish ponds are undesirable and harmful to fish culture. They reduce dissolved oxygen in the water. Fish suffer stress due to dissolved oxygen depletion and wide fluctuations between dissolved oxygen values ​​during the day and night. They also expel a large number of nutrients from the water, which would otherwise be involved in the production of plaque in the pond. The dense growth of submerged weeds limits the movement of fish and interrupts the fishing process. Therefore, it is necessary to remove/remove weeds before storing fish in the pond.
Unwanted weeds are controlled or eliminated in the following ways.
1) Manual or mechanical method
2) Chemical method and
3) Biological method

Grass carp are the most effective biological control agent against mostly submerged and floating weeds, except water furs. Grass carp usually eats at least 50 ch of its body weight a day. About – a month to clean a hydraulically infected aquatic body. Approximately clear –––––– fish, each weighing 0.5 kg. Hydraulic infestation density is generally up to 5-25 kg / m2 (Elekoni and Skumaran, 1964).

3. Elimination of predators and weeds
If predator fishes in the pond are harmful to decent fishes as they fall prey to them (spawn, fry, and toes) and grass fishes compete with carp for food, space, and oxygen. Therefore, before storing these ponds, the hunter and weeder should be completely removed from the nursery, breeding and pond storage. Frequent drag traps can remove predators and weeds from the pond, but this does not guarantee complete elimination. Therefore, draining the pond out of the water and poisoning it is the only alternative, as some types of fish fall into the mud and escape the nets.
Predators and weeds can easily be killed by drying the pond. However, this is not always feasible or economical, therefore, fish poisons are used to eliminate predators and weeds. One should go for cheap and readily available fish poison. The effect of fish poisoning varies from one week to 6 weeks depending on the type of poison used. Therefore, the poisoning of water should be ensured 2 to 6 weeks prior to fish storage. Seasonal ponds that are dry during the summer months do not need to be treated with fish poisoning.

Recommended Diet for Fish Poisoning
Poison
Food (kg / ha / m)
Bleaching powder
350 – 500
Mohawk Oil Cake
2 500
Uncontrolled ammonia
20 – 30
Croton Ticlim Powder Badge
30 – 50
Root powder of Malaysia peachy carpa
40 – 50
Powder of Militia Pacifica seeds
40 – 50
Berenctonia acetancula seeds powder
150
Eating tamarind seeds (tamarind indica)
1 750 .2 000
Tea seed cake (Camellia sinensis) *
750

Although there are a number of chemicals and plant sources available in the market that are toxic to fish, only a limited number of them are safe and suitable for fish culture purposes. A suitable poison of fish has been selected based on the following criteria.
ison poisonous fish is safe for human consumption
The pond has the least negative impact on the biota
• The poisoning period should be short term
res should not have a residual effect
آسان Easy trading availability
اد Simplicity of application
• Cost considerations.
Mohwa oil cake, bleaching powder, and ammonia are considered suitable.

4 Controlling aquatic insects
In their larvae and/or adult stages, many aquatic insects are prone to fish hatching and fry and also have to contend with food. Useless swimmers, cedar waterbugs (ballastoma), water scorpions (Napa) and burgers enter nurseries, especially during monsoons and are prone to spawn and fry.
Pests can be eliminated by repeatedly catching nets with small dirty nets. They can also be eliminated by the use of pesticides, but this method is not recommended because these chemicals kill zooplankton and fish spin and fry. The main method of eliminating insects is to apply a thin pigment film on the surface of the pond that reduces the respiratory tract of aquatic insects. Using a mixture of soap and oil is an effective way to control aquatic insects.

Pond remediation methods for predator aquatic insects
Treatment dose / ha
Soap Oil Emulsion 56kg Vegetable Oil + 18kg Soap
Diesel oil 50-60
Kerosene 80 – 100
Turpentine oil 75
Diesel Emulsifier Diesel 50 * Emulsifier 37.5 ml + water 2

Limited and Fertilization
To maximize fish production, natural lime and fertilizers should be used properly to increase their natural fish feed. Organic and inorganic fertilizers can be used to enhance the natural production of ponds that provide nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.
The length is 15 days before being stored in the pond with the fish fry and finger. Generally, 200 kg per hectare of lime is used beneath the pond. The amount of lime applied to the pond depends on the pH of the pond. To take full advantage of the lime, the pond should be left to dry after use.

Need for lime
Soil pH Soil-like lime (kg/ha)
4.0-4.9 Extremely acid 2000
5.0-6.4 Moderate Acids 1000
About 6.5-7.5 Neutral 500
7.5-8.4 Light Alkaline 200
8.5-9.5 Too much alkaline nail

Biofloc Fish Farming , Biofloc Fish Culture

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Biofloc Fish Farming , Biofloc Fish Culture

It is an innovative and cost-effective technology in which toxic substances for fish and shellfish such as nitrates, nitrites and ammonia can be converted into useful products, that is, protein foods. It is the technology used in the aquaculture system with limited or zero exchange of water with high storage density, strong aeration and organisms formed by bioflock.Bioflock will be fruitful in the case of sun-exposed crop tanks.

What is Biofloc
The Biofloc system was developed to improve the environmental control of aquatic animal production. In aquaculture, the factors that most influence are the cost of food (which represents 60% of the total cost of production) and the most limited availability of water / land. High density livestock and aquaculture require wastewater treatment. The bioflock system is a wastewater treatment that has acquired a vital importance as an aquaculture approach.

The principle of this technique is to generate a nitrogen cycle by maintaining a higher C: N ratio by stimulating the growth of heterogeneous microbes, which accommodate nitrogen waste that can be exploited by spices grown as food. Biomass technology is not only effective in the treatment of waste but also in the feeding of aquatic animals.

The higher C: N is maintained by adding a source of carbohydrates (molasses) and improving water quality by producing high-quality single-celled microbial protein. In such a situation, dense microorganisms develop and act as a bioreactor that controls the quality of the water and the food source of the protein. The freezing of toxic nitrogen species occurs faster in biomass because the growth rate and microbial production per unit of heterogeneity substrate is ten times higher than that of self-fed nitrophobic bacteria. This technique is based on the principle of flocculation within the system.

Bioflock technology has been applied to shrimp farming due to its usual lower habitat and resistance to environmental changes. Studies were conducted to evaluate larval growth and reproductive performance of shrimp and Nile tilapia. Improved reproduction performance was observed in shrimp raised in the bioflock system compared to normal culture practices. Likewise, an improvement in larval growth performance was observed.
Composition and nutritional value of biofloc.
Biofloc is a homogeneous group of suspended particles and a variety of microorganisms associated with extracellular polymeric materials. It is composed of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, fungi, invertebrates, waste, etc. It is a protein-rich food that is formed as a result of converting unused food and waste into a natural food in the culture system when it is exposed to sunlight. Each block is held together in a loose mucus matrix secreted by bacteria and linked by filamentous microorganisms or electrical attraction. Large flows can be seen with the naked eye, but most are microscopic. The flow size varies from 50-200 microns.

A good nutritional value is found in biomass. The weight of dry protein varies from 25 to 50 percent, and fats vary from 0.5 to 15 percent. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals, especially phosphorus. It also has an effect similar to probiotics. Dry biomass is proposed as a component to replace fishmeal or soy in the food. The quality of the food is good. However, there are only limited qualities available. In addition, the effectiveness of commercially producing and drying biomass from biomass is a challenge.
Benefits of the Biofloc Culture System
  1. Environment friendly culture system.
  2. It reduces the environmental impact.
  3. Improves land and water use efficiency
  4. Water exchange is limited or zero
  5. Higher productivity (promotes survival rate, growth performance and feed transformation in fish farming systems).
  6. High biosecurity.
  7. Reduces water pollution and the risk of introducing and spreading pathogens
  8. Cost-effective feed production.
  9. It reduces the use of protein-rich feeds and the cost of standard feeds.
  10. It reduces the pressure on natural fisheries, that is, the use of cheap food fish and litter fish in foraging fish.

Disadvantages of the bioflock technology
  1. Increased energy requirements for mixing and ventilation
  2. Low response time because water breathing rates are high
  3. Required start period
  4. Alkaline supplements required
  5. Increased risk of contamination from nitrate build-up
  6. Inconsistent and seasonal performance for sun-exposed systems